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Expert Opinions


2020

THE NETHERLANDS
Health Council of the Netherlands: 5G and health

"In its analysis, the committee has assessed whether electromagnetic fields in the 5G frequency ranges have the potential to cause adverse health effects. It has assessed whether relations exist between exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the one hand and the occurrence of diseases and conditions on the other. The relations between exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of cancer, reduced male fertility, poorer pregnancy outcomes and congenital defects have been classified by the committee as ‘possible’. However, the committee deems the relation between exposure and these and other diseases or conditions to be neither proven nor probable. The committee has also looked at the relation between exposure and biological processes, such as cognition, sleep and electrical activity in the brain. It is probable that changes in electrical activity in the brain are associated with exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, but it is not known whether that is favourable or unfavourable in health terms. For the majority of other biological processes it has neither been demonstrated nor is it probable that changes in them are associated with exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Relations are classified as ‘possible’ for these processes. For changes in the immune system and hormone levels, no relation was found.”

It is furthermore specified in the report: “it is important to distinguish between the risk (the probability that a given exposure to the factor actually causes adverse health effects) and the hazard (the intrinsic characteristic of a factor that gives it the potential to cause harm). The conclusions that the committee draws in this report are only about the hazard, i.e. the potential to cause harm. To be able to make statements about health risks, … a thorough analysis of the available data is needed. Such analysis is currently being performed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the results are expected in 2022.”


UNITED STATES
Food and Drug Administration Review of Published Literature between 2008 and 2018 of Relevance to Radiofrequency Radiation and Cancer

Based on the FDA’s ongoing evaluation, the available epidemiological and cancer incidence data continues to support the Agency’s determination that there are no quantifiable adverse health effects in humans caused by exposures at or under the current cell phone exposure limits. In the last decade, there have been approximately 70 relevant epidemiological studies that have been published as peer-reviewed scientific evidence. … Based on the studies that are described in detail in this report, there is insufficient evidence to support a causal association between RFR exposure and tumorigenesis. There is a lack of clear dose response relationship, a lack of consistent findings or specificity, and a lack of biological mechanistic plausibility.


IRELAND
Environmental Protection Agency New RF technologies – 5G

The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on humans have been subject to significant research. This includes the radio frequencies used and envisaged for 5G in mobile communications and other applications. No health effects have been proven at levels below the ICNIRP guidelines for members of the public, as such no consequences for public health are expected from the use of 5G.


SPAIN
Comité Científico Asesor en Radiofrecuencias de España CCARS Report on 5G and Health

This document presents the initial opinion of CCARS based on the existing scientific evidence on 5G and health. This is a living document that will have to be reviewed in light of the scientific evidence, which concludes that the foreseeable exposure levels with the arrival of 5G technology can be expected not to change significantly and, in any case, will not exceed the maximum limits allowed that guarantee public health with respect to electromagnetic emissions. The CCARS will continue to monitor the results of the studies that are published on the actual levels of exposure of the population, both in relation to the 5G networks that are operational throughout the national territory and the use of devices that use this technology. (Translation)


2019

AUSTRALIA
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) Misinformation about Australia’s 5G network

Contrary to some claims, there are no established health effects from the radio waves that the 5G network uses.

This network currently runs on radio waves similar to those used in the current 4G network, and in the future will use radio waves with higher frequencies. It is important to note that higher frequencies does not mean higher or more intense exposure. Higher frequency radio waves are already used in security screening units at airports, police radar guns to check speed, remote sensors and in medicine and these uses have been thoroughly tested and found to have no negative impacts on human health.


Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) 5G: the new generation of the mobile phone network and health

The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) safety standard sets limits for exposure to RF EME. These limits are set well below levels at which harm to people may occur. The operating frequencies of the 5G network are included within the limits set by the ARPANSA safety standard. 5G infrastructure and devices emitting RF EME are regulated by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA), and emissions are required to comply with the limits of the ARPANSA safety standard.


AUSTRIA
Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) Harmful? Myths and facts about the start of 5G

The specified limits are to be considered regardless of the number of transmitters. Even if individual emissions should be increased by a larger number of transmitters, the individual values must be calculated together. The measurements carried out by the responsible telecommunications authorities show that exposure levels are already so low that exceeding the limit values even with the expansion of 5G is excluded. (Translation)


CANADA
Health Canada Radiofrequency Energy and Safety: RF safety requirements for 5G

The current Canadian limits already cover the frequency ranges that will be used by 5G devices and antenna installations.

Similar to current wireless devices and installations, 5G devices will need to meet RF exposure requirements before they can be sold in Canada. Antenna systems operators using 5G technology will continue to have the same RF exposure compliance obligations. Furthermore, compliance with RF exposure requirements will continue to be an ongoing obligation.


CHINA
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology The authority response came! Is 5G radiation really bigger than 4G?

The 5G network is faster than the 4G speed, not by enhancing the signal transmission power of the communication base station, but by expanding the transmission bandwidth. The 5G base station and the 4G base station are all less than 40 microwatts per square centimeter. Moreover, the denser the coverage of the base station, the better the reception of the mobile phone signal, and the smaller the electromagnetic radiation received by the user. Therefore, as more and more communication base stations, the signal is better and the radiation is smaller. (Translation)


DENMARK
Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR) 5G network

Overall, it is the opinion of the National Board of Health that there is no reason to be concerned that there should be a health risk associated with 5G. Measurements show that the total radiation from cell phones, wifi and other devices that today emit non-ionizing radiation is weak and is well below the limits for what is harmful to health. Based on the knowledge available, we have no reason to believe that 5G will change that. (Translation)


FINLAND
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) 5G Network Radiation Safety

To ensure the radiation safety of mobile networks, exposure limit values have been defined in radiation legislation. They are based on the best scientific evidence and cover all frequencies currently in use as well as new 5G network frequencies to be used in the future. The limit values protect against the health effects of both short-term and long-term exposure. So people don’t have to worry about radiation exposure from the 5G network.

Limit values for population exposure and action levels for electromagnetic fields are laid down in a decree of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. They follow the recommendation of the Council of the European Union, which is in force in most European countries. Great care has been taken in setting limit values. The only scientifically proven effect of radiofrequency radiation is tissue warming, and there is a large safety margin between the exposure limit and the potentially harmful tissue warming. (Translation)


GERMANY
Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Questions and Answers on the Introduction of 5G Mobile Networks and Related Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)

There is no fundamental difference between electromagnetic fields of previous mobile radio networks and those of 5G transmitters. According to current scientific knowledge, regardless of the technology used, the electromagnetic fields do not present any health risks if the limit values are observed. It has been scientifically proven that the absorption of electromagnetic fields by the body leads to an increase in tissue temperature (so-called “thermal effect”). Limits ensure that the temperature increase remains so low that no health effects occur. The noteworthy innovation is that in future, in addition to the frequencies already used by various radio applications, 5G will also use higher frequencies in the range of millimeter waves. (Translation)


Federal Office for Radiation Protection 5G

Findings from studies in which the possible health effects of electromagnetic fields from mobile radio were investigated can largely be transferred to 5G. For example, the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme (DMF) was designed in such a way that its findings would also have significance for future technical developments. The frequency range was deliberately defined broadly. In some studies, it went beyond the ranges currently used for mobile communications. Within the valid limit values for mobile base stations and in compliance with the product safety requirements for mobile phones, there is therefore no confirmed evidence of a damaging effect of mobile radio.

In a further expansion step, higher frequency bands in the milli- or centimetre-wave range are also planned for 5G (e.g. in the 26 GHz, 40 GHz band or at up to 86 GHz). It can be assumed that no health effects are to be expected in these areas below the existing limit values. However, because only a few results are available for this area, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection still sees a need for research in this area. […]


ISLE OF MAN
Public Health Directorate Radio-frequency electro-magnetic fields (RF-EMF) and the 5G network

5G is part of the same spectrum as the RF-EMF currently used in telecommunications. In the Isle of Man 5G will utilise frequencies similar to those already in use by existing networks. The research on health effects of RF-EMF also applies to 5G. 5G will be regulated to comply with the ICNIRP guidelines. 5G does not mean that we will be exposed to a new type of radiation, or to higher or stronger levels of RF-EMF.


MALASIA
Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) 5G technology causing health problems to humans? People do not need to worry

People in the country need not worry about the views of some who believe that 5G technology can affect their health as it is spread on social media.

According to Professor Dr. Tharek Abd Rahman, a Member of the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC), said to date no conclusive research has proven that 5G technology can be harmful to human health.

He said studies conducted so far have found that exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field (RF-EMF) is below the recommended limits in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines. (Translation)


NEW ZEALAND
New Zealand Ministry of Health 5G and Health

5G is simply a new application of radio technology. Existing research on the possible health effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields applies as much to 5G as to any other radio system in use. 5G transmitters are covered by the New Zealand RF field exposure standard,1 and 5G cellsites will have to comply with Resource Management Act (RMA) 1991 rules about cellsites. These rules include compliance with the exposure standard. …… Measurements at laboratory and operational 5G sites in Australia have shown that exposures to 5G signals are similar to, or lower than, those from existing cellsites, and small fractions of the public limit in the standard.


Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor 5G in Aotearoa New Zealand

The currently available scientific evidence makes it extremely unlikely that there will be any adverse effects on human or environmental health. NZ needs to continue to monitor the risks of exposure and ensure that they are within the international safety standard, as well as keeping a close watch on any new research.


NORWAY
Norwegian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (DSA) 5G technology and radiation

The combined research shows that radiation from wireless technology is not hazardous to health, as long as the levels are below the recommended limit values. This is the prevailing view among scientists in many countries today, and it is supported by the EU Scientific Committee. We have been using cell phones and radio transmitters for decades and much research has been done into how this affects our health. No risk factors of importance to public health have been found. With the knowledge we have today, there is no need to worry about 5G being dangerous to health. (Translation)


SWEDEN
Public Health Agency of Sweden Electromagnetic fields

The fifth generation mobile network, 5G, has been set up in a few countries. In Sweden, the technology will be launched in 2020 and so far only small-scale test operations are ongoing in a couple of places. 5G uses frequencies higher up in the frequency band compared to 3G and 4G and will provide the ability to transfer larger amounts of data faster. Based on today's knowledge of radio frequency electromagnetic fields, researchers do not see that 5G and the specific frequencies used would pose a health risk…(Translation)


SWITZERLAND
Working group on Mobile Radio and Radiation on behalf of the Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) Report Mobile Radio and Radiation

A starting point for indicating the current state of research on the health effects of mobile radio radiation was the report by Hug et al. (2014)i, which was drawn up for the Federal Council's "Zukunftstaugliche Mobilfunknetze"ii (future-oriented mobile radio networks) report in fulfilment of two postulates. It has since been supplemented by recently evaluated studies which were mainly selected from the newsletter of the NIR Experts Group (BERENIS) of the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). International evaluation reports published since 2014 were also taken into account. Finally, the connection between mobile radio radiation and cancer risk, as well as other health- related effects, were evaluated according to a conventional scale (adequate, limited, inadequate or non-existent validity).

In relation to possible health effects of 5G radio technology, there are as yet few studies on cells and animals relating to acute effects. The working group's risk assessment therefore relied on studies conducted in the past on 2G, 3G and 4G technology and which work with frequencies which lie in the same range as those frequencies currently being used for 5G.

The working group determined that to date, for the mobile radio frequencies currently in use, no health effects below the guideline values of the international radiation protection commission ICNIRP, on which the immission limit values of the ONIR are based, have been consistently scientifically proven. The ICNIRP confirmed its guideline values of 1998 in the 2018 revision and essentially left them unchanged.


UNITED KINGDOM
Public Health England 5G technologies: radio waves and health

Exposure to radio waves is not new and health-related research has been conducted on this topic over several decades. In particular, a large amount of new scientific evidence has emerged since the year 2000 through dedicated national and international research programmes that have addressed concerns about rapidly proliferating wireless technologies.

The main focus of recent research studies has been on exposure to the types of radio signals used by current communications technologies and at the frequencies they use, up to a few GHz.

Fewer studies have been carried out at higher frequencies but the biophysical mechanisms that govern the interaction between radio waves and body tissues are well understood at higher frequencies and are the basis of the present ICNIRP restrictions. The main change in using higher frequencies is that there is less penetration of radio waves into body tissues and absorption of the radio energy, and any consequent heating, becomes more confined to the body surface.

It is possible that there may be a small increase in overall exposure to radio waves when 5G is added to an existing network or in a new area. However, the overall exposure is expected to remain low relative to guidelines and, as such, there should be no consequences for public health.


2018

AUSTRALIA
Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research (ACEBR) Can radiowaves cause cancer?

There has been numerous studies of the relationship between radiowave exposure and cancer, ranging from animal and biological tissue sample studies to human studies in which the health of human volunteers is monitored in relation to their exposure to radiowaves (e.g. through mobile phone use). This literature has been reviewed by numerous national and international committees, expert working groups and agencies. In 2011 the World Health Organsiation/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as being possibly carcinogenic to humans (classification group 2B) based on an increased risk for glioma associated with wireless phone use. The evidence was evaluated as being limited, and this classification reflects this, indicating that there could be some risk and additional research is therefore required.


SWEDEN
Scientific Council of Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) 2018:09 Recent Research on EMF and Health Risk, Twelfth report from SSM's Scientific Council on Electromagnetic Fields, 2017

No new health risks have been identified. Whether mobile phone use causes brain tumours or not was mainly addressed using time trends studies in the last two years. The results were not entirely consistent but mainly point towards a lack of association. Some cell and animal studies indicate that EMF exposure may cause oxidative stress even at low exposure levels. It is unclear what relevance this may have when it comes to direct health effects in humans. A striking result was that some studies showed a stronger association between memory functions and radio wave exposure than other usage variables.


THE NETHERLANDS
EMF Knowledge Platform What does 5g mean for health?

The 5G network, like current mobile networks, must comply with international exposure limits for electromagnetic fields. If the exposure remains below the applicable limits, you are sufficiently protected against the now known harmful health effects. In the exposure limits, a margin takes into account the uncertainties in scientific research. …. This does not change with the advent of 5G: even then, the total exposure to electromagnetic fields, including 5G, must remain below the exposure limits. The Telecom Agency checks the strength of electromagnetic fields. (Translation)


2017

AUSTRALIA
Australian Radiation Protection Agency (ARPANSA) Technical Report “Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Energy and Health: Research Needs, TR178

There is currently no established evidence that exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic energy (EME) at levels below the safety limits of the Australian RF Standard causes any health effects. However there are gaps in the knowledge that require further research.


EUROPE
European Commission Answer to letter about 5G Appeal

It is worth underlining that for the Commission health protection is always taken into account in all of its proposals. There is consistent evidence presented by national and international bodies (International Commission on Non Ionising Radiation Protection - ICNIRP, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks - SCENIHR) that exposure to electromagnetic fields does not represent a health risk, if it remains below the limits set by Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC.

The legal framework established under the Radio Equipment Directive2 provides for the safety of radio devices placed on the EU market. In addition to the national enforcement of the EU law, the Commission encourages research into effects of exposure to Electromagnetic fields and periodically requests an independent update of the scientific evidence available. The Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks, which is independent of the Commission, has a standing mandate to provide this update.

It has already produced five opinions. The last opinion3 was adopted in January 2015 on "Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields". These scientific opinions have not provided any scientific justification for revising the exposure limits (basic restrictions and reference levels) under Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC.

The strict and safe exposure limits for electromagnetic fields recommended at EU level apply for all frequency bands currently envisaged for 5G.


2016

THE NETHERLANDS
Health Council of the Netherlands Mobile phones and cancer, Part 3. Update and overall conclusions from epidemiological and animal studies, 2016

The available data do not allow drawing conclusions on whether there is an association between an increased carcinogenic risk and any form of accumulation of exposure, for instance expressed in the total call time, or the total amount of energy deposited by the electromagnetic fields generated by the phone in the head or in any other body part. So it is not possible to state whether a higher or longer exposure is less safe than a lower or shorter exposure. The Committee therefore considers the value of any measures to reduce exposure unclear. However, it is possible that some individuals would like to reduce their exposure, despite the conclusion of the Committee that there is no consistent evidence for an increased risk for tumours in the brain and other regions in the head associated with mobile phone use. The Knowledge Platform Electromagnetic Fields provides a number of suggestions for exposure reduction.


2015

EUROPE
Public Health England, STUK, IARC, et al European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, 2015

Time trends in glioma incidence based on Nordic countries excluded any significant increased incidence attributable to mobile phone usage of up to 10 years.
Overall, currently available information does not provide unequivocal evidence that non-ionising radiation at low and high frequencies is a cause of cancer.


SWEDEN
Scientific Council of Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) Recent Research on EMF and Health Risk - Tenth report from SSM’s Scientific Council on Electromagnetic Fields, 2015

However, in previous reports the Scientific Council of SSM has concluded that studies of brain tumours and other tumours of the head (vestibular schwannoma, salivary gland), together with national cancer incidence statistics from different countries, are not convincing in linking mobile phone use to the occurrence of glioma or other tumours of the head region among adults. Recent studies described in this report do not change this conclusion although these have covered longer exposure periods. Scientific uncertainty remains for regular mobile phone use for time periods longer than 15 years.


CANADA
Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Safety Code 6 Limits of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Energy in the Frequency Range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz, 2015

At present, there is no scientific basis for the occurrence of acute, chronic and/or cumulative adverse health risks from RF field exposure at levels below the limits outlined in Safety Code 6. The hypotheses of other proposed adverse health effects occurring at levels below the exposure limits outlined in Safety Code 6 suffer from a lack of evidence of causality, biological plausibility and reproducibility and do not provide a credible foundation for making science-based recommendations for limiting human exposures to low-intensity RF fields.


EUROPE
European Commission, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), SCENIHR Opinion 2015

Overall, the epidemiological studies on mobile phone RF EMF exposure do not show an increased risk of brain tumours. Furthermore, they do not indicate an increased risk for other cancers of the head and neck region. … The results of cohort and incidence time trend studies do not support an increased risk for glioma while the possibility of an association with acoustic neuroma remains open. Epidemiological studies do not indicate increased risk for other malignant diseases, including childhood cancer.


2014

CANADA
Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel Report on A Review of Safety Code 6 (2013): Health Canada's Safety Limits for Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields

Available studies suggest that the basic restrictions recommended in Safety Code 6 do provide adequate protection against known adverse health effects across the radiofrequency range.


SWEDEN
Scientific Council of Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) Recent Research on EMF and Health Risks, Ninth report from SSM's Council on Electromagnetic Fields, 2014

In line with previous studies, new research does not indicate any health risks for the general public related to exposure from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from base stations for wireless networks, radio and TV transmitters, or wireless local data networks in schools or at home.


UNITED KINGDOM
Biological Effects Policy Advisory Group (BEPAG), UK Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), Are there harmful Biological Effects of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields at frequencies up to 300 GHz?, Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), May 2014

BEPAG has concluded in this report that the balance of scientific evidence to date does not indicate that harmful effects occur in humans due to low-level exposure to EMFs. Our examination of the peer-reviewed literature published in the last two years has not justified a change in the overall conclusions published in our previous report in May 2012.

Public Health England for the Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research Programme Management Committee, Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research Programme (MTHR): Report 2012

(On Epidemiological Studies of Cancer): Taken together, the studies discussed in this section and those in Section 2 of the MTHR Report 2007 do not suggest that exposure to mobile phone signals is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Given the short time that mobile phone use has been widespread, none of these studies has been able properly to investigate risk in relation to long-term phone use.


INTERNATIONAL
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Cancer Report 2014

Time trends in glioma incidence based on Nordic countries and the USA exclude any large increase in incidence attributable to mobile phone use, albeit with reference to a relatively short time from initiation of exposure. No association was observed between mobile phone use and other cancers.


2013

NORDIC REGION
Exposure from mobile phones, base stations and wireless networks - A statement by the Nordic radiation safety authorities

The overall data published in the scientific literature to date do not show adverse health effects from exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below the guidelines or limits adopted in the Nordic countries. However, epidemiological studies on long-term exposure to radio waves from mobile phones are still limited, especially studies on children and adolescents.

Since exposure of the general public, including children, to radio waves from the wireless local area networks and base stations is far below the exposure limits, there is no need to further limit exposure from these radio wave sources.

Mobile phone exposure
In May 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (&) decided to classify radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans. This classification was mainly based on the results of a few epidemiological studies indicating an elevated risk of brain cancer among adult mobile phone users.

Since 2011, a number of epidemiological studies on mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours and other tumours of the head have been published. The overall data on brain tumour and mobile phone use do not show an effect on tumour risk. (&) It is too early to draw firm conclusions when it comes to risk for brain tumours for children and adolescents, but the available literature to date does not show an increased risk.

Exposure from base station transmitters and wireless local area networks (&) Recent surveys have shown that despite the sharp increase in applications using wireless technology, the level of radio wave exposure in public outdoor areas as well as indoor in schools, offices and dwellings is far below the exposure limits.


THE NETHERLANDS
Health Council of the Netherlands. Mobile phones and cancer. Part 1: Epidemiology of tumours in the head. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2013; publication no. 2013/11

[T]he final conclusion from this systematic analysis is then: there is no clear and consistent evidence for an increased risk for tumours in the brain and other regions in the head in association with up to approximately 13 years use of a mobile telephone, but such risk can also not be excluded. It is not possible to pronounce upon longer term use.


SWEDEN
Scientific Council of Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) Recent Research on EMF and Health Risks, Eighth report from SSM's Council on Electromagnetic Fields, 2013

Subsequent to the last Council report published in 2010, IARC in 2011 classified radiofrequency electromagnetic (RF) fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) based on an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) associated with wireless phone use. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies on mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours and other tumours of the head (vestibular schwannomas, salivary gland) have been published. The collective of these studies, together with national cancer incidence statistics from different countries, is not convincing in linking mobile phone use to the occurrence of glioma or other tumours of the head region among adults. Although recent studies have covered longer exposure periods, scientific uncertainty remains for regular mobile phone use for longer than 13-15 years. It is also too early to draw firm conclusions regarding children and adolescents and risk for brain tumours, but the available literature to date does not indicate an increased risk.

On transmitters:

Recent research on exposure from transmitters has mainly focused on cancer and symptoms, using improved study designs. These new data do not indicate health risks for the general public related to exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from base stations for mobile telephony, radio and TV transmitters, or wireless local data networks at home or in schools.